关于进化论,化石记录究竟告诉我们什么呢?化石 表明了从简单结构到复杂有机体的进程吗?让我们来看下列事实:

动物的突然出现。 所有不同动物的基本形式突然出现在岩层中,功能具全 – 没有祖先的迹象。“进化论需要各物种的中间形式,而古生物学不能提供。”(David Kitts, 古生物学家和进化论者) 化石记录使达尔文困窘,因为它没有提供动物宏进化的证据。

This article is also available in English: What does the fossil record teach us about evolution? English answer…
植物也是突然出现。进化论者 Edred J.H. Corner:“……我仍然认为,对于没有成见的人来说,化石记录倾向于支持特殊创造 论。”(现代思想中的进化论 Evolution in Contemporary Thought, 1961, p.97 )现代植物的进化历史(从始到终),科学家们至今连一类也未能找到。
化石记录没有为支持进化论提供证据。“化石是进化论理论的一大困窘,却强烈支持 创造论的概念。”(Gary Parker 博士,生物学家/古生物学家和前进化论者)
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​Walter Frisch and Kevin C. Karnes, eds, Brahms and His World (Princeton: Princeton University Press) commissioned for Music Analysis 31/1 (Spring 2011) 140–150.

Nicole Grimes


Nicole Grimes


more than the descriptions in this essay, the attention to detail and erudition of which nonetheless conjure up vivid tonal images.The accounts of the lives of thepianos that Brahms possessed for any lengthy period – such as the Graf bequeathed to him by Clara Schumann and the J. B. Streicher that he acquiredin 1872 for hisVienna apartment – will resonate with anyone who has seen theseinstruments on display in the Musikinstrumentsammlung of the Kunsthis-torisches Museum inVienna, or in many of the well-known images of Brahms,some of which are reproduced in this volume. In addition, a selection of Brahms’s correspondence reveals the composer’s thoughts on the differencesbetween Viennese- and English-action pianos and between various sizes of Viennese instruments. Not only the authors’ expertise, but also their infectiousenthusiasm and affection for the subject, provides much to recommend thisessay.In-keeping with the agenda of the Bard Music Festival Series, which under-takes to explore a given composer’s life, music and times, the material providedin Parts Two and Three are integral to this project. In addition to the primarysources available in the 1990 edition, the editors have commissioned Kevin C.Karnes to translate a number of Eduard Hanslick’s reviews and Heinrich Schen-ker’s 1892 analysis of Brahms’sA Capella Choral Pieces,Op.104;William Millerto translate Max Kalbeck’s 1914 essay on the

Four Serious Songs

, Op. 121; andStyra Avins to translate Richard Heuberger’s ‘My Early Acquaintance withBrahms’. In addition, two fleeting reminiscences of Brahms by Zemlinsky andKarl Weigl are translated by Walter Frisch, and Joseph Eisinger translates amemoir of Brahms by Heinz von Beckerath.The value of these sources for Brahms scholarship is inestimable. Particularlyexciting are the first-hand accounts of the time Brahms spent with RichardHeuberger (with only brief excerpts of this having been previously available intranslation in the dissertation of Holly E. Hughes) and Gustav Jenner.


Thecorrespondence with Billroth, Joachim and the Heubergers is similarly the mostvaluable window we have in the Brahms


onto Brahms’s views, aboutwhich he was famously reticent, of his own compositional process. Jenner’smemoir is significantly more detailed and extensive in this regard. Whereasexcerpts of it were available in the 1990 edition,this is the first time the completetext has been presented in translation.With all of the bad press that Kalbeck hasreceived in recent years for the liberties he took in writing his biography,his essayon the

Four Serious Songs

serves as a reminder of the continued value of hisfour-volume biography; and, as Karnes reminds us in his introduction to theessay, it also displays ‘Kalbeck’s widely noted penchant for vividly evocativeanalytical elucidation’ (p. 267).The illustrations included in this volume offer a further rich resource,although it is a pity that the editors did not provide a list of these in the openingpages. Of particular note are the 1902 portrait of Max Reger (p. 130), thephotographs of Robert Hausmann and Brahms by Maria Fellinger (p. 148) andamong other friends as captured by Eugen von Miller Aichholz (p. 159), the

148 C




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images of Klinger’s


which are central to Karnes’s piece (pp.174, 178, 179 and 182), the title-page woodcut from Nietzsche’s

The Birth of Tragedy

(p. 181) and the headshots of Richard Heuberger (p. 341) and Gustav Jenner (p. 383). In a book containing only black-and-white print, however, thesereproductions have only limited quality. In this digital age, it would be of furtherbenefit if the editors designed an accompanying website to house high-qualitydigital reproductions.






1. David Brodbeck (ed.),

Brahms Studies

,3 vols (Lincoln,NE,and London:Universityof Nebraska Press, 1994, 1998 and 2001).2. Styra Avins, ‘The Young Brahms: Biographical Data Reexamined’,

19th-Century Music

, 24/iii (2001), pp. 276–89; and Jan Swafford, ‘Did theYoung Brahms PlayPiano inWaterfront Bars?’,

19th-Century Music

, 24/iii (2001), pp. 268–75.3. Boman Desai, ‘The Boy Brahms’,

19th-Century Music

, 27/ii (2003), pp. 132–6.Desai subsequently published the novel

Trio: a Novel about the Schumanns and Brahms

(Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2004).4. Johannes Brahms,

Johannes Brahms:Life and Letters

, trans. Josef Eisinger and StyraAvins (NewYork and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).5. See Kurt Hofmann, ‘Brahms the Hamburg Musician 1833–1862’, in MichaelMusgrave (ed.),

The Cambridge Companion to Brahms

(Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press,1999),pp.3–30;and Kurt Stephenson,

 Johannes Brahms und FritzSimrock: Weg einer Freundschaft 

(Hamburg: J. J. Augustin, 1961), and

JohannesBrahms und die Familie von Beckerath

(Hamburg: Christians, 1979).6. Florence May,

The Life of Johannes Brahms

, 2 vols (London: Reeves, 1905).7. Hans Gál,

 Johannes Brahms:HisWork and Personality

,trans.Joseph Stein (NewYork:Alfred A. Knopf, 1963; originally published as

Johannes Brahms:Werk und Persön-lichkeit 

[Frankfurt: Fischerei Bücherei, 1961]).8. Walter Niemann,


, trans. Catherine Alison Philips (New York: Alfred A.Knopf, 1929).9. Daniel Beller-McKenna,

Brahms and the German Spirit 

(Cambridge, MA: HarvardUniversity Press, 2004).10. Brahms’s grievance was with Liszt and Franz Brendel, not withWagner.This is animportant distinction. See David Brodbeck’s essays both in the 1990 edition of 

Brahms and His World 

and in the current volume.See also Nicole Grimes,‘Brahms’sCritics: Continuity and Discontinuity in the Critical Reception of JohannesBrahms’ (PhD diss., University of Dublin,Trinity College, 2008), Ch. 1.11. See Nancy Reich’s essay in the volume under review, and Reich,

Clara Schumann:the Artist and the Woman

(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985; rev. edn,2001), particularly Chs 5–7.






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12. Reich,

Clara Schumann

.13. Reinhold Brinkmann, ‘Zeitgenossen: Johannes Brahms und die Maler Feuerbach,Böcklin, Klinger und Menzel’, in Friedhelm Krummacher, Michael Struck, Con-stantin Floros and Peter Petersen (eds),

Johannes Brahms:Quellen –Text – Rezeption– Interpretation:Internationaler Brahms-Kongress,Hamburg 1997 

(Munich: G. Henle,1999), pp. 71–94; Beller-McKenna,

Brahms and the German Spirit 

; and MargaretNotley,

Lateness and Brahms: Music and Culture in theTwilight ofViennese Liberalism

(Oxford and NewYork: Oxford University Press, 2007).14. Jon Finson, review of George S. Bozarth (ed.),

Brahms Studies: Analytical and Historical Perspectives

and Walter Frisch (ed.),

Brahms and HisWorld 


Journal of theRoyal Musical Association

, 117 (1992), pp. 152–7.15. For readers interested in the topic of Brahms as a performer broached in the firstpart of this essay,it is not clear what Moseley adds that hadn’t already been coveredby Michael Musgrave in Ch. 12, ‘Brahms the Pianist’, in

A Brahms Reader 

(NewHaven, CT, and London:Yale University Press, 2000), pp. 121–35. Many of theexcerpts quoted are similar in both, although Musgrave’s exploration of the topic ismore comprehensive and follows a clear chronology, and the excerpts are moresubstantial.16. See Carl Dahlhaus,

Nineteenth-Century Music

, trans. J. Bradford Robinson (Berke-ley, CA: University of California Press, 1989), pp. 137–8.The critique of virtuosityin nineteenth-century music is addressed in Dana Gooley, ‘The Battle againstInstrumentalVirtuosity in the Early Nineteenth Century’, in Christopher H. Gibbsand Dana Gooley (eds),

Liszt and HisWorld 

(Princeton, NJ: Princeton UniversityPress, 2006), pp. 75–111.17. Eduard Hanslick,‘Brahms:Zweites Clavierconcert in B-dur’,in

Concerte,Componis-ten undVirtuosen der letzten fünfzehn Jahre,1870–1885:Kritiken

(Berlin:AllgemeinerVerein für Deutsche Literatur, 1886), pp. 298–303; this translation is taken fromGrimes, ‘Brahms’s Critics’, p. 276.18. Robert S. Hatten,

Interpreting Musical Gestures,Topics,andTropes:Mozart,Beethoven,Schubert 

(Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004).19. See, for instance, George S. Bozarth and Margaret Debenham, ‘Piano Wars: theLegal Machinations of London Pianoforte Makers, 1795–1806’,

RMA ResearchChronicle

, 42 (2009), pp. 45–108.20. Holly Elaine Hughes, ‘Richard Heuberger’s “Erinnerungen an Johannes Brahms”:the Life, Work, and Times of Johannes Brahms as Revealed by a Contemporary’(DA diss., Ball State University, 1987).






earned her doctorate atTrinity College Dublin in 2008 with herdissertation on the critical reception of Brahms. Her research focusses on theintersection between nineteenth- and twentieth-century German music criti-cism, music analysis and music aesthetics. She was recently awarded a MarieCurie Postdoctoral Fellowshi


Brahms on Composition 

copyright © 2002, 2006 by Larry Solomon


1. When you study music, the most important thing to learn is Strict Counterpoint.

2. Writing variations is something good for the beginner.

3. Usually the best ideas flow from the hand or mind without any particular effort, these are the ideas that will endure in your compositions.

4. Never begin working the out of a composition before the whole thing has taken definite form as an outline either on paper or in your head. When ideas come to you, go for a walk, then you will discover that the thing you thought was a complete thought, was actually only the beginning of one.

5. In the sonata form, the piece must have a logical structure. It is not enough to have a good idea here and there. The sonata is not when one has merely combined several ideas through the outward form of the sonata, but that, on the contrary, the sonata form must emerge of necessity from the idea.

6. When you are composing a piece, your bass should be vibrant, not sleepy or lazy. Your harmonies should sing and not be weak.

7. Harmony should not only be the accompaniment of the piece, but help and allow the idea to develop, so to speak, to help it emerge clearly and powerfully.

8. In regular composition, and song writing, the determining role of the melody and of clearly perceived basses created in good counterpoint should be a must.

9. When you examine a piece, read only the vocal line separately and or the bass separately, so this way you can see if your melody is dreary or your bass boring. The determining role of the melody and of clearly perceived basses created in good counterpoint should be a requirement. The accompaniment should be a equal, even independent, element and sometimes to move it canonically in relation to the voice. The canonic form never develops into the controlling element, but only as a means of increasing the charm of the vocal melody. And the melody will always break the form when its powerful and sublime flow so dictates.

10. Combining variety (diversity) with unity can be difficult. It is accomplished by transforming the basic motive more or less recognizably through rhythmic alterations; through displacement into other chordal inversions, and through exact or retrograde inversions, thereby you create themes and melodies of the most extreme contrast.

11. Extension of the subsidiary motives can be done by means of augmentation.

12. To compose a long adagio is the most difficult of all.

13. Unified modulation does not in any way preclude the use of even the most distant keys. Quite the contrary these keys become distant only by virtue of the fact that another key governs; this is what gives them their expressive power. They say something different; they are like the colors of a painting that contrast with the background color and are simultaneously contained and intensified by it.

14. To learn modulation imitate the masters. If Beethoven, Mozart or Haydn go from C Major to E Major, you do the same. In regard to the overall course of the modulation, with the exception of the individual divergences, the guiding principle is “The straight path is the best path”.

15. You must learn how to work. You must write a lot, day after day, and not think that what you are writing always has to be something significant. As far as songs go, you will write many songs before a usable one emerges.

16. It is rare that a piece, once it has been completed, becomes better through revision; usually it gets worse.

17. You should not always trust your ideas. The pen is not only for writing, but also for deleting. But be very cautious. Once something has been written down it is hard to get rid of. But if you have come to the conclusion that it will not do; even if it’s good in itself- then don’t think about it for long; simply strike it out! How often one attempts to save such a passage and thus ruins the entire thing, not to mention becoming a slave to the idea instead of being the master. Sometimes passages like this also serve to conceal the troublemaking elements whose presence you might have intuited but would have not looked for it there at all. Corrections usually should have to do with particular details of the composition.

18. Clearly imitation is the best way to understand how music is written and structured. A beginning composer should follow the methods of composition which are set by the masters like Brahms, Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn, etc,. This way you can understand the structure and apply this to your own work. Every composer takes ideas from other composers, its not that your going to use that idea note for note in your piece. On the contrary, it’s the way you manipulate or change the idea and develop it, which reveals the genius in a composer and his composition. When you compose, it is good for a beginner to copy or follow a particular structure of a piece or a style of a composer; this way you can discover how a composition is created or constructed and apply this to your own ideas. By doing this you will eventually break out of that mold and with a clear understanding develop your own style of composition or a ingenious variation of an older one with unprecedented new insight.


1. In song writing, the first thing to be examined should be whether the musical form fully corresponds to the text. Mistakes along these lines should be avoided. In general, if the text allows treatment in strophes, then that should be utilized. On which texts should be treated in strophes and which not, a close study of the songs of Franz Schubert will prove invaluable.

2. When a composer attempts to write songs, he should know his text precisely. Which also includes, the construction and meter of the poem should be thoroughly clear to him. Before you compose it, you should carry the poem around with you in your head for a long time and should frequently recite it out loud to yourself, paying close attention to everything, especially the declamation. Also mark the pauses especially and follow these later when you work.

3. The pauses in a song, should be often a echo of what precedes them, often a preparation for what follows. The rhythm should undergo an artistic development and the accompaniment should be raised to a factor that has it’s own independent influence. It should create freedom and assurance.

4. Once the song’s structure has been examined from all these angles, then follows a consideration of it’s individual parts. At those points where language inserts punctuation, the musical phrase has cadences; and just as the poet, in his purposeful construction, ties sentences more or less closely together using commas, semicolons, periods, etc., as his external signs, so the musician, similarly, has at his disposal, perfect and imperfect cadences in a variety of forms to indicate the greater or lesser degree of coherence of his musical phrases. The importance of the cadence is evident, for it is through them that both the construction and proportion of the various parts are determined.

5. Here the main thing was to understand the combination and opposition of the three great factors in music- rhythm, melody and harmony; to understand, for example, that the cadence that is harmonically and melodically perfect will have a weaker effect if it does not occur simultaneously with the rhythmic cadence; that such an occurrence may, in one instance, be a grievous error, in another an effective means of joining the phrases together: that the weaker cadence must precede the stronger; and finally that the proportion of the various parts must correspond to the text. In some cases a six-four chord can sometimes resolve the situation; A CADENTIAL SIX-FOUR.

6. The location and form of the cadences is linked in the closest possible manner with the course of the modulation. Even in the case of a very long song whose subsidiary phrases were extended and internally consistent, the principal key always has to be clearly articulated and its dominance over the secondary keys maintained by means of clear relationships, so that, so to speak, the sum of all the keys utilized in the piece combines to create an image of the tonic key in its activity. That precisely the lack of clear identification of a key, even the tonic, can serve as an excellent means of expression, is in the nature of the matter.

7. The canonic form when used in accompaniment should never develop into the controlling element, but should serve on the contrary, only as a means of increasing the charm of the vocal melody. And the melody will always and unhesitatingly break the form whenever its powerful and sublime flow so dictates.

Compiled from Brahms and His World by Walter Frisch. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09139-0 [Cloth] / 0-691-02713-7 [Paper].


1. All truly inspired ideas come from God, and the consciousness of being inspired by him. Your religiosity will make you more conscious and aware of that fact, and of the fact that God is nearer to you than others in your craft, and that you can consort with him without fear.

2. The contact of inspiration though God cannot be done merely by will power working through the conscious mind, which is an evolutionary product of the physical realm and perishes with the body. It can only be accomplished by the soul-powers within – the real ego that survives bodily death. Those powers are quiescent to the conscious mind unless illumined by Spirit.

3. To realize that we are one with the Creator, as Beethoven did, is a wonderful and awe-inspiring experience. Very few human beings ever come into that realization and that is why there are so few great composers or creative geniuses in any line of human endeavor. All this should always be contemplated before commencing to compose. This is the first step.

4. When the urge to compose is present, appeal directly to the Maker and ask Him three most important questions pertaining to our life here in this world – whence, wherefore, whither [woher, warum, wohin]? This appeal will immediately manifest feelings of vibrations that will thrill your whole being. These are the Spirit illuminating the soul-power within, and in this exalted state, you can clearly see what is obscure in your ordinary moods; then you feel capable of drawing inspiration from above, as Beethoven did. These vibrations assume the forms of distinct mental images, after you have formulated your desire and resolve in regard to what you want – namely, to be inspired so that you can compose something that will uplift and benefit humanity – something of permanent value. Straightaway the ideas will flow upon you, directly from God, and not only should you see distinct themes in you mind’s eye, but they also will be clothed in the right forms, harmonies and orchestration. Only with divine inspiration will finished product be revealed to you, measure by measure.

5. Most of the time you have to be or will be in a semi-trance condition to get such results – a condition when the conscious mind is in temporary abeyance and the subconscious mind, which is part of Omnipotence, that the inspiration comes; and to be careful, however, not to lose consciousness, otherwise the ideas will fade away. That is the way Mozart composed, and when asked what the process was with him while composing, he replied: “The process with me is like a vivid dream”. He then went on and described how ideas, clothed in the proper musical setting, streamed down upon him. God and His Omnipotence, His awe-inspiring grandeur, His glory, and above all his closeness to you are things that should be pondered on just before commencing to compose. It is most stimulating and inspiring process to think along those lines before entering that trance-like state in which inspirations come.

6. The dream-like state is like entering a trance-like condition – hovering between being asleep and awake; you are still conscious but right on the border of losing consciousness, and it is at such moments that inspired ideas come. Then it is of the utmost importance to put the ideas down on paper immediately. Then they are fixed and cannot escape; and when you look as them again, they conjure up that same mood that gave them birth. This is a very important law. Themes that occur this way usually are the ones that will endure.

7. Spirit is the light of the soul. Spirit is universal. Spirit is the creative energy of the Cosmos. The soul of man is not conscious of it’s powers until it is enlightened by Spirit. Therefore, to evolve and grow, man must learn how to use and develop his own soul forces. All great creative geniuses do this, although some of them do not seem to be as conscious of the process as others. Beethoven was aware of the fact that he was inspired and he left records to that effect.

8. All true inspiration emanates from God, and can reveal Himself through that spark of divinity within – through that psychologists call the subconscious mind. Any composer capable of entering into that state can create immortal works, only in believing in which no less an authority than Jesus, Himself, says, in John 14:10 “The Father that dwelleth in Me, He doeth the works, and in the 12th Verse of the same chapter, He adds, “He that believeth Me, the works that I do shall he do also, and greater works than these shall he do”. All these things mentioned here have a direct bearing on the mental, psychic and spiritual processes when attempting to compose. The powers from which all truly great composers like Mozart, Schubert, Bach and Beethoven drew their inspirations is the same powers that enabled Jesus to perform His miracles. We call it God, Omnipotence, Divinity, the Creator, etc. It is a power of All that created our earth and the whole universe, and Jesus taught us that we can appropriate it for our own upbuilding right here and now and also earn Eternal Life. Jesus is very explicit in Matthew 7:7, saying, “Ask and it shall be given you, seek and ye shall find; knock and it shall be opened unto you”. There would not be so much good music paper wasted in fruitless attempts to compose if those great precepts were better understood. That is why atheists works are utterly lacking in inspiration. Their works are purely cerebral. The great Nazarene knew that law also, and He proclaimed it in John 15:4, “The branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine.” No atheist has ever been or will be a great composer. Jesus taught us that there is true supreme hope for all. He came not as the great exception, but as the great example for us to emulate. Adherence to can create nothing but divine values and an alliance with the Creator, that is capable of a life on earth full of inspiration and masterpieces of music to accompany that life for others to witness. This is the secret of inspiration; which is the ability to synchronize the conscious and subconscious minds, just as Jesus did, but on a much higher level.

9. Inspiration is of such importance in composing, but by no means all that there is to it. Structure is just as consequential, for without craftsmanship, inspiration is a ‘mere reed shaken in the wind’ or ‘sounding brass or tinkling cymbals’. Great compositions are not the fruits of inspiration alone, but of severe, laborious and painstaking toil. No composition will live long unless it has both inspiration and craftsmanship, which Beethoven had to a superlative degree. There also must be in relation, with inspiration and craftsmanship, a natural aptitude, where ideas come to you with more or less no conscious effort, with a sense of comfort and relative ease, like a aspiration being fulfilled. But parallel to that, as seen in Beethoven’s sketchbooks, comes the proof that he toiled incessantly in order to leave us such masterpieces. Only with your religiosity, God’s inspiration, and the utilization of all three, can one achieve mastery of classical music composition and achieve true fame and immortality, which is what oblivion constantly tries to challenge. This is the proven universal formula for success in music and any and all other endeavors of human life.

10. Another aspect of this art which is extremely vital and demands great emphasis, is privacy. It should be unthinkable of attempting to compose unless you are sure you will not be interrupted or disturbed. The Muse is a very jealous entity, and she will fly away on the slightest provocation.

11. A composer who wishes to write worth-while music must devote his whole time and energy to that one occupation.

12. A composer in order to study, learn and absorb all that the masters have to offer, and put to use that knowledge in his own works, must have the capacity to judge objectively an individuality that differs from his own.

Compiled from Talks with Great Composers: Candid Conversations with Brahms, Puccini, Strauss, and Others by Arthur M. Abell. New York: Carol Publishing Group, Citadel Press, (1955), 1994, 182 pp. ISBN 0-8065-1565-1


Brahms – “In tune with the Infinite”

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Johannes Brahms
1833–1897 • Germany

In his early teens, to support his family,Brahms earned money playing in dance halls and inns around the docks in Hamburg — the same area and the kinds of places where the Beatles would develop their performing skills just over a century later. When Brahms was 20 he met the renowned violinist Joseph Joachim, who recognized his gifts and introduced him to the composer Robert Schumann.

Intermezzo – By Johannes Brahms

By his early 30s Brahms’s genius was widely recognized. Even his contemporaries spoke of the “three great B’s” — BachBeethoven, andBrahms. He spent much of his life in Vienna, the musical center of Europe. He wrote symphonies, concerti, chamber music, piano works, choral works, and more than 200 songs. A virtuoso pianist, he often performed his own compositions, either as a soloist or accompanist.

Brahms-Piano1Brahms was a preserver of tradition at a time when Romantic composers were breaking with tradition (his first symphony was hailed as “Beethoven’s Tenth”). Yet he was also an innovator, adding new elements to develop a powerful, energetic, and personal Romantic style.

Despite his financial success, he lived a very modest life. He gave money to relatives and anonymously supported aspiring young musicians. Like Beethoven, he loved taking long walks in the wooded areas aroundVienna.

In 1889, Brahms was visited in Vienna by a representative of Thomas Edison, who asked him to make an experimental recording. The quality was poor — but this marked the first recording by a major composer.

In the following passages Brahms talks about his creative process:

Brahms-2To realize that we are one with the Creator, as Beethoven did, is a wonderful and awe-inspiring experience. Very few human beings ever come into that realization and this is why there are so few great composers or creative geniuses in any line of human endeavor. I always contemplate all this before commencing to compose. This is the first step. . . .

I immediately feel vibrations that thrill my whole being. . . . In this exalted state, I see clearly what is obscure in my ordinary moods; then I feel capable of drawing inspiration from above, as Beethoven did. . . .

Straightaway the ideas flow in upon me, . . . and not only do I see distinct themes in my mind’s eye, but they are clothed in the right forms, harmonies, and orchestrations. Measure by measure, the finished product is revealed to me when I am in those rare, inspired moods. . . . I have to be in a semi-trance condition to get such results — a condition when the conscious mind is in temporary abeyance and the subconscious is in control, for it is through the subconscious mind, which is part of Omnipotence, that the inspiration comes. I have to be careful, however, not to lose consciousness, otherwise the ideas fade away. [1]

[The term “subconscious”] is the most inappropriate name . . . super-conscious could be a much better term. [2]

The real genius draws on the Infinite source of Wisdom and Power as Miltonand Beethoven did. That is, in my opinion, the best definition of genius. . . . Great powers like Goethe, Schiller, Milton, Tennyson and Wordsworth received the Cosmic vibrations of eternal Truths because they linked themselves to the infinite energy of the Cosmos. . . .

The themes that will endure in my compositions all come to me in this way. It has always been such a wonderful experience. . . . I felt that I was, for the moment, in tune with the Infinite, and there is no thrill like it. [3]

Brahms-3Brahms possessed uncommon insight into the creative process and the origin of genius. All great achievement, he believed, is the expression of a field of infinite creativity and intelligence, “the infinite energy of the cosmos.” Human creativity and nature’s creativity have a common source, Brahms suggests.

For Brahms, this is more than philosophical speculation. He seeks to describe the unique state of awareness from within which his greatest compositions arise — a state, he makes clear, quite different from ordinary waking consciousness.

He characterizes it as an “exalted state” in which he is “capable of drawing inspiration from above.” He calls it “a semi-trance condition” in which “the conscious mind is in temporary abeyance.” In this state, he says, his mind opens to what he calls “the subconscious” — which he defines as “part of Omnipotence.” Later he says “superconscious” would a better word.

What is he describing? His words call to mindMaharishi’s description of the fifth state of consciousness, Cosmic Consciousness.

Brahms-PhotoLet’s review. DuringTranscendental Meditation practice, the mind settles inward and experiences what Maharishi calls Transcendental Consciousness, a fourth major state of consciousness, distinct from waking, dreaming, and sleeping. The mind is silent and serene, wide awake within itself. There are no perceptions, thoughts, or feelings, just consciousness in its pure state. Brain functioning is coherent and integrated. The body is deeply relaxed. In this state we experience the source of thought, an infinite reservoir of creativity and intelligence and bliss. Here, Maharishi observes, is the source of nature’s creativity and intelligence, the unified field of natural law described by quantum physics. This is our true Self.

When we first begin to meditate, we may have this experience only at the deepest moments of meditation. Over time, the mind becomes increasingly familiar with this state.

When we experience Transcendental Consciousness on a regular basis, twice a day, Maharishi explains, something extraordinary happens. This state begins to carry over into our life outside of meditation. Brain functioning remains integrated at all times. We begin to experience unbounded awareness coexisting with waking, dreaming, and sleeping, an unbroken continuum of experience deep within. The limitless ocean of creativity and intelligence at the source of thought is now available at all times. This, Maharishi observes, represents a fifth major state of consciousness, distinct from waking, dreaming, sleeping, and Transcendental Consciousness.

In the ordinary waking state, Maharishiexplains, we do not experience thoughts until they reach the “surface” of the mind. In Cosmic Consciousness, one experiences thoughts at their inception, when they are most powerful, most fully imbued with the unbounded creative intelligence of their source.

Brahms-photo2Brahms’s words certainly point in this direction. When he tells us he sometimes experiences a “superconscious” state in which his mind has access to a field of “omnipotence,” he suggests the fully awake state of Cosmic Consciousness, in which the mind is open to its source, the all-pervading, all-powerful field of nature’s creative intelligence. He felt his greatest music, “the themes that will endure,” came when his awareness remained settled and expanded even during the activity of composing — when he was “in tune with the Infinite.” This, he believes, is the source of all creative genius.

The fourth state of consciousness,Transcendental Consciousness, is simple and natural; everyone has the natural ability to experience it. The Transcendental Meditation technique provides an effortless way to do so. With regular experience of this state, Maharishi explains, Cosmic Consciousness develops spontaneously over time. Scientific research studies indicate what this looks like. Regular Transcendental Meditation practice leads to increased integration of brain functioning, increased creativity and intelligence, greater field independence (ability to focus on details while maintaining broad comprehension), and better health, among many other benefits.

Cosmic Consciousness brings another invaluable benefit. Because the mind is now open to the source of natural law, we live spontaneously in accord with natural law — meaning we no longer make mistakes, no longer create problems for ourselves and others. Instead we enjoy what Maharishi calls support of nature, enabling us to fulfill our desires without strain.

Brahms-youngCosmic Consciousness, Maharishi asserts, is the normal state of human life. In this state, mind and body function as they were designed to function, free of stress, fully integrated and awake. Anything short of Cosmic Consciousness is less than normal.

Brahms gives us a glimpse of what this state can be. His experiences, though transitory, gave rise to some of the West’s greatest music.

Now this state, glimpsed and celebrated by creative geniuses through history, is systematically available to all. Who can imagine, as more and more people begin rising to this state, the creative accomplishment and the transformed world that will result?

[1] Quoted in Arthur M. Abell, Talks with Great Composers (New York: Philosophical Library, 1955), 5–6.
[2] Abell, 9.
[3] Abell, 11.


Craig PearsonDr. Craig Pearsonis Executive Vice-President ofMaharishi University of Management in Fairfield, Iowa. He has served the University in a variety of roles over the past 33 years, including Dean of Faculty, Dean of Students, Director of Maharishi University of Management Press, Director of Freshman Composition, and Professor of Professional Writing.

He holds a PhD in Maharishi Vedic Science from MUM and is the author of two books on the development of full human potential, The Complete Book of Yogic Flying and The Supreme Awakening: Developing the Infinite Potential Within (forthcoming). He is also a member of the Board of Directors of Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment.




既然我们是盟约的主体,那么知道在每个盟约里,我们如何能经历  神的祝福的相关条款和条件的细节就很重要。在伊甸园盟约里,亚当和夏娃所要做的就是不可吃分别善恶树上的果子。在律法的旧约里,我们知道要蒙受  神的祝福,就必须完全地遵守十条诫命。

那么新约呢?既然它是完全基于  神的赏赐的恩惠,不是基于我们遵守律法或者我们必须做什么,那么在这个约里我们(需要做)的部分是什么?既然新约是基于耶稣在十字架上完成的工,我们如何能蒙受  神的祝福呢?在恩典的新约里是否有一部分需要我们来对付?这些是很重要的问题,所以让我们来探讨新约里关于“我们的部分”这个问题。
首先,让我们确立一个事实,就是当有新约时,就没道理再回到旧约试图体验  神的祝福。想想这个:你的公司获得主要跨国公司的一项新的合约,价值数百万美元,远超过旧合约。你会仔细审查基于旧合约还是新合约的条款呢?答案显而易见。然而,今天就是有些信徒试图回到旧约的条款。他们不知道旧约不再有效,而今天,我们甚至没有旧约之下那个只给以色列子民的规定——为他们的罪献祭。
10主又说:“那些日子以后,我与以色列家所立的约乃是这样:我要将我的律法放在他们里面,写在他们心上;我要作他们的   神,他们要作我的子民。11他们不用各人教导自己的乡邻和自己的弟兄说:‘你该认识主,’因为他们从最小的到至大的,都必认识我。12我要宽恕他们的不义,不再记念他们的罪愆。” 13既说新约,就以前约为旧了;但那渐旧渐衰的,就必快归无有了。
律法的旧约全是关于你必须做什么。然而,新约全是关于  神要做什么。注意这段经文中“我要”出现的次数了吗?与把律法写在冰冷的石板上相反,在新约之下,  神宣称,祂要将祂的律法放在你的里面,写在你的心上。  神非常清楚祂已经结束了旧约,所以毫无疑问这个——祂将写在你心上的律法并非是十诫。那么祂将要放在你里面的律法是什么呢?
在约翰福音13:34, 神说祂赐给我们一条新命令——叫我们彼此相爱,像祂爱我们那样。在罗马书3:27,使徒保罗提到了信主之法。所以  神放在你心里的律法乃是祂的爱心之法和信心之法。
把  神的爱心之法放进你的(头脑)里面并且写在你的心上,这意味着什么呢?这带来了如此强大的连锁反应,我甚至不知道从哪里开始说起!当你知道你虽不值得  神的恩惠,却开始在生命中体验  神的爱和赏赐的恩惠时,你就要与耶稣坠入爱河了。当你充满了耶稣的爱,这爱会溢出到你所有的关系中。首先是  神,然后是你的配偶、家人、朋友、同事以及你遇见的每一个人。
没有  神的任何命令,你会开始重新爱上你的配偶。浪漫的蜜月和耶稣的恩典会刷新你的婚姻。你不会怀有通奸的想法,因为你和配偶相爱。事实上,只有当你充满耶稣对你的爱,你才能完成保罗在以弗所书5:25的命令——“你们作丈夫的,要爱你们的妻子,正如基督爱教会,为教会舍己”。男人们,你是否意识到重点不在于我们必须做什么,也不在于我们对妻子的爱?事实是,我们首先要被基督对我们的爱充满。我们能爱,是因为祂先爱了我们!
9像那“不可奸淫”,“不可杀人”,“不可偷盗”,“不可贪婪”,或有别的诫命,都包在“爱人如己”这一句话之内了。 10爱是不加害与人的,所以爱就完全了律法。
事实上,当你领受  神的爱,你不但能毫不费力的遵守律法,而且还会超越它。新约全部是关于与耶稣之间,活的、充满活力的和亲密的关系。律法是劣等的——它只能命令你不要犯通奸罪,但它不能使你爱你的配偶。在律法之下,一个人可以待在家里,身体上不与他人通奸,但他的心却可以对配偶冷淡,他可以通过从电视或网络所看到的进行幻想。律法之下,你只不过在形式上守律法,但在恩典之下,你却能真实的体验。
律法涉及的纯粹是表面,而恩典则更深入。律法不会告诉你如何挽救你的婚姻。但今天,当  神把祂的律法放在你的心里,你可以跑向祂,说:“主啊,我感觉我的妻子离我越来越远,教我如何爱她。”  神将会引导你,因为祂曾应许,“他们从最小的到最大的,都必认识我”[来8:11] 如果你有感动(圣灵的提示)对她说些鼓励和肯定的话,就说吧。如果你有感动(圣灵的提示)给她一个拥抱,就去做吧!顺从你心里的感动,因为主会引导你去爱你的配偶!
今天,  神直接通过祂的提示对你说话,祂让你很容易明白祂的旨意。
在新约里  神让一切都变得容易。我们不必再跑到先知那里寻求  神对我们的旨意。因为祂亲自引导我们!你们当中想要服侍主却不知道从哪开始的人,只要问问自己的内心就好了。如果你想要到儿童中间工作,那就那么做好了。作为一名新约的信徒,那就是你的天父给你的带领。祂把祂的律法放在你的里面(头脑、思想里面),写在你的心上!
也许你有感动(圣灵的提示)去祝福某人的经济,即使那个人看起来很富有。只管跟随那个感动,因为今天,  神直接对你说话,祂让你很容易明白祂的旨意。我们都知道外表是会骗人的。比如,许多艺术家认为,教会的人很容易受骗。所以他们穿着朴素哭诉一个精心编排的故事,以便当他们靠近你时你会捐给他们。另一方面,有一些高贵的人穿着华丽,周日去一个尊贵的场合,但实际上他们的经济却陷入困境。因此我们需要顺从心里的感动(圣灵的提示)而不是凭我们眼见。所以当你有感动去为某人做些什么的时候,就去做,要知道你有一个全新的心能听见  神,因为你们立志行事,都是   神在你们心里运行![腓2:13]
现在,你知道,旧约是取决于以色列人作工以及遵守律法。那么新约取决于什么呢?亲爱的,  神如此美好!  神立的新约不取决于你和我必须做什么事,因为祂知道我们总会失败。仔细听。新约运作只因为一件事,就是希伯来书8:12这新约的最后一个条款。衡量你是否拥有这个条款的启示并它一切的祝福,就是看你是否行在其中。你准备好看这个条款了吗?
注意单词“for”,意思是“因为”(译者注:英文圣经里有for,中文翻译没有体现出来)。新约运作因为  神说祂要宽恕我们的不义,不再记念我们的罪愆!“不再”指的是“我必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三四代”(出埃及记20:5)。 这个可以从十诫中找到。然而,今天,  神强调说,“不再!”(希腊语中的双重否定,新约为希腊文) “不再”是指  神绝对不再记念我们的罪,因为祂记得我们的罪在祂儿子的身上已受了惩罚。耶稣在十字架上担当了  神对我们的罪的刑罚。现在,我们可以行在新约中,并且听见  神说,“我不再记念你们的罪和不义。”
我的朋友,新约因为这最后一句条款而运作。换言之,因为希伯来书8章12节, 神能把祂的律法放在我们里面,把它们写在我们心上,我们都必认识祂且被祂引导!
你在  神赏赐的恩惠的新约里的部分,就是相信你所有的罪都已经被赦免,耶稣的血洗净你一切的罪和不义。
今天,我们有些书店里卖的书是基于诺斯底教派的教导,他们不相信耶稣是  神的儿子。这些作品试图贬低耶稣,并把祂归化为一个凡人,一个历史人物,没有其他的了。你只是看到文中或者封面上提及“耶稣”并不能就证明它们的作者信耶稣。实际上许多作品都是敌基督的。
基于恩典的新约,  神想要你相信什么?当祂说“……我要宽恕他们的不义,不再记念他们的罪愆”,祂想要你全心相信祂说的话。你看,在新约里,除了相信没有什么是需要我们做的!你在  神的赏赐的恩惠的新约里的部分,就是去相信你的罪已经被完全地赦免,耶稣的血洗净你的一切不义和罪愆。
今天在  神的眼中,因耶稣所完成的工,你是完美的公义。新约的重点是要知道并相信你的罪已经被饶恕,而且  神从祂的记忆中抹去它们。如果你不相信这个,你就不可能倚靠并期望  神去保护、供应和兴旺你。如果你不相信这个,便会抢夺你去领受祂的良善、祂的祝福、祂的赏赐的恩惠以及祂在你生命里成功的能力。
“可…可…可是…牧师,  神是全知的,祂怎么可能会忘记我的罪呢?”
在新约之下,  神能宣布祂不再记得你的罪,是因为祂记得你的罪已经被十字架上的耶稣的身体所担当了。我的朋友,有一件事是  神所不能做的——祂不能说谎。所以当祂说祂不再记念你的罪时,祂是说真的。我们在  神的赏赐的恩惠的新约里的部分,就是相信  神真的不再记念我们的罪!
赦免你所有的罪的耶稣的血是有能力的!仇敌非常害怕这个真理,这就是为什么它如此强烈的攻击关于赦罪的教导。如果仇敌能使你相信“你并没有完全被赦免”这个谎言,并使你持有罪的意识,它就能让你一直挫败、自责、害怕  神并且陷入这样一个恶性循环。
如果仇敌能使你相信“你并没有完全被赦免”这个谎言,并使你持有罪的意识,它就能让你一直挫败、自责、害怕  神并且陷入这样一个恶性循环。
诺斯底主义作品是恶毒的,因为他们传播谎言,说耶稣是一个凡人,这就意味着祂的血没有能力将我们从罪中洗净。这是来自地狱深渊的谎言!耶稣是  神的儿子,祂的血是没有任何罪污的。这就是为什么祂纯洁无罪的血能够洗净我们一切的不义。祂的血不像旧约里公牛和山羊的血只是暂时遮盖罪。祂的血涂抹并完全清除我们所有的罪。这是  神自己的血,为我们罪得赦免而流!我们必须开始意识到这并非是一个“基础教导”,而是耶稣基督的福音。
在末期,人们将不是敌对  神,而是敌基督。末期的敌基督运动将试图贬低耶稣的  神性、十字架以及祂赦免我们的罪的权柄。这就是为何,在末后的日子,我们需要更多传讲耶稣、祂完成的工以及祂的赏赐的恩惠的新约。我们需要更多新约的、把耶稣的十字架作为他们传讲重点的,以基督为中心的传道人。只有一种办法来阻止这种欺骗蔓延到教会,就是专注于高举耶稣以及新约的核心,就是完全赦罪!这就是福音,并且当福音真理被传讲时,人们就会得到释放。
在恩典的新约里,  神实际上是在说,“我想让你相信你已被饶恕。我想让你相信你是一个享有我的怜悯的人。我想让你相信我不再记念你的罪。”这话不是我说的。你自己再读一次希伯来书8:12。
不幸的是,有些基督徒信的完全相反。他们不相信他们的罪已被完全赦免。他们不相信希伯来书8:12  神不再记念他们的罪。这影响了他们和  神之间的关系。与其看见耶稣代替他们,使他们的罪债已经被完全的清除和解决,他们却期望  神按他们的罪对付他们。当他们生活里发生一些负面的事时,他们首先想到的是,“我知道——恶有恶报。  神冲着我来是因为我过去的所作所为!”与其抓住  神的应许,这些信徒却相信那些负面事情的发生,是因为  神在处罚他们生活里的一些罪。
也许有人曾经告诉他们,当他们失败时,  神就惩罚他们。也许他们曾经被教导,你种的是什么,收的也是什么。亲爱的,今天,我们不再收我们所种的。那是旧约上说的。在新约里,我们正享受因耶稣在十字架付出沉重的代价而带来的好处。我们什么都没种下,但借着耶稣,我们已收获每个祝福。那就被称作赏赐的恩惠!
There arepassages in the Bible that have been erroneously used to justify and perpetuatea judgment mentality among believers, like Galatians 6:7–8, which says, “Do not be deceived, God is not mocked;for whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. For he who sows to his fleshwill of the flesh reap corruption, but he who sows to the Spirit will of theSpirit reap everlasting life.”
圣经中有些段落曾经被错误的用于在信徒中证明并延续一个审判的心理。像加拉太书6:7-8,经文说,“不要自欺,  神是轻慢不得的;人种的是什么,收的也是什么。顺着情欲撒种的,必从情欲收败坏;顺着圣灵撒种的,必从圣灵收永生。”
我的朋友,你当读圣经时,正确的划分词语是很重要的,更重要的是,研习经文时要注意它完整的上下文。加拉太书6:7-8上下文是关于播种金钱。它与播种罪恶无关。然而,一些牧者用播种和收获的主体来恐吓信徒们,认为他们若播种罪,他们就会从  神收获审判、定罪和惩罚。
别让任何人错误的解释经文来迷惑你。加拉太书6:7-8的上下文是关于播种和收获金钱。经文前后(6节、9节和10节)清楚地显明上下文是在谈论说当向众人行善,向信徒一家更当如此的施教者要蒙受祝福(加6:6在道理上受教的,当把一切需用的供给施教的人)。因此,这里说顺着情欲撒种的是指用钱来自我放纵,而不是对  神的国慷慨。经文是说,播种金钱去放纵自己会导致衰败的结果,而播种金钱到  神的国度则会导致永生的结果。
在新约里,没有关于种和收的经文是用在罪的背景下的!种和收的原理只用在种和收钱财以及种和收  神的话语的背景下。[路加福音8:11] 从来没有涉及罪!所以别让圣经段落的粗劣解释抢夺你已全部罪得赦免的确信。在以弗所书1:7里清楚地说明你的罪已被全然饶恕,经文说,“我们借这爱子的血,得蒙救赎,过犯得以赦免,乃是照祂丰富的恩典(赏赐的恩惠)。”
你被赦免不是照着你丰富的好行为,而是照着  神丰富的恩典(赏赐的恩惠)。你所有的罪——过去的,现在的和将来的——都已经被赦免。别给  神赦免你的罪画一个时间表。有些基督徒认为  神只赦免从他们出生到信主成为基督徒之前一天的罪。从那一刻起,他们认为自己必须处处小心,以免失去救恩。你知道吗?这种信仰是不符合圣经的。哥罗西书2:13明确指出 神赦免了我们一切的过犯:
你们从前在过犯和未受割礼的肉体中死了,  神赦免了你们(注:或作“我们”)一切过犯,便叫你们与基督一同活过来;
——歌罗西书 2:13
“一切”是指如同对我做的,同样也对你做吗?我的圣经说,我们因耶稣在十字架上一次牺牲,一切过犯都被赦免。我们已蒙赦免且是永远!旧约的大祭司必须每天为罪献祭。耶稣,我们完美的新约大祭司,“祂只一次将自己献上,就把这事成全了。”[来7:27] 在十字架上,祂亲自担当了你一生中将会犯下的所有的罪,并且一次性支付了你所有的罪价。基督不需要为你将来的罪再被钉上十字架。事实上,当祂死在十字架时,你所有的罪都是将来的(译者注:因为耶稣早在2000多年前死在十字架上,而你的罪是在2000多年以后)。所以,你一旦把耶稣迎接至心,你所有的罪就全被赦免了!
“可是,牧师,为什么我的罪完全蒙赦免的认知,对于行在  神赏赐的恩惠中如此重要呢?”
其次,如果你认为你的罪在十字架上并没有完全解决,那么你就永远不会有信心去享受主的同在,因为你永远不能确定祂是站在你这边,还是等着因你的过失而惩罚你。你会经常感到不配,因为你对自身行为的衡量,并且你永远都不会有胆量向  神祈求大事,或者相信祂会在你的生活里赐予你成功。
第三,如果你不相信耶稣已经赦免你所有的罪,这意味着当你失败时,你会认为你不能与  神相交,并且和祂的交通都被切断。与其倚靠祂赏赐的恩惠来克服你的失败,你反而觉得在修复和  神的交通并再次倚靠祂之前,你应该向  神认罪、悔改和赔罪。
事实是这样:一旦你不能明确已被完全赦免,你就会变得情绪化。有时候,你感觉你和  神之间关系很好,但是有时候,你却不这么认为。有时候,你感到确信  神与你同在并使你成功,但是有时候,你觉得你搞砸了,除非你认罪悔改,否则  神不会帮助你。
你会进入不安全感的循环,你总是希望进入  神的恩典,又脱离  神的恩典。所以这些感觉都是取决于你自认为自己的表现有多好,而忽略了十字架上的耶稣。朋友,  神不会根据你的行为来评价你。祂只看耶稣完美的工作。而因为你不相信耶稣确实赦免你所有的罪,你最终会感觉完全像一个伪善者并且失败。
我希望你开始看见,明白你的罪被完全赦免这并非只是  神学家的事儿。如果你认为你的罪没有被完全赦免,这将会从根本上影响你和耶稣的关系。在祂完全准备好祝福你,赐你恩惠并使你成功时,由于对祂已经完成的工的不信,会抢夺你在生活中领受祂的良善、祂的祝福、祂的赏赐的恩惠以及祂的成功的能力!
耶稣的十字架使你有资格,但对新约主要条款的不信则取消你的资格。今天请深思  神在新约里关于你的罪所说的话,从祂那里自由领受吧!新约完全立基于祂的赏赐的恩惠。没有任何事需要你去做,没有任何事需要你去履行,没有任何事需要你去完成。看看下面的列表,概括了新约和旧约的本质区别。你在新约里的部分就只是相信耶稣,相信通过祂已经完成的工,你已经被完全地赦免,并且自由地享受新约的祝福!
•  神要求人公义。
•  神必追讨你的罪三四代。
•以色列子民只有完美遵守  神的诫命时才能蒙福——内在和外在。
你若听从耶和华你  神的诫命,就是我今日所吩咐你的,谨守遵行,不偏左右,也不随从侍奉别  神,耶和华就必使你作首不作尾,但居上不居下。
•以色列子民若不能完美地遵守  神的诫命就要受咒诅。
15你若不听从耶和华你   神的话,不谨守遵行他的一切诫命律例,就是我今日所吩咐你的,这以下的咒诅都必追随你,临到你身上:16你在城里必受咒诅,在田间也必受咒诅;17你的筐子和你的抟面盆都必受咒诅;18你身所生的、地所产的,以及牛犊、羊羔都必受咒诅。19你出也受咒诅,入也受咒诅。20耶和华因你行恶离弃他,必在你手里所办的一切事上,使咒诅、扰乱、责罚临到你,直到你被毁灭,速速地灭亡。
•以色列子民被抢夺了对  神的良善的信心,因为他们总是专注于自己的表现有多好或多差(即自我意识)。
•以色列子民不能与  神有亲密的关系,因为他们的不义拉开了他们与  神之间的距离。
•以色列子民不能进入至圣所(  神在那里)。只有大祭司在赎罪日能进,并且一年只有一次。
•通过耶稣完成的工  神称人为义。
5惟有不做工的,只信称罪人为义的  神,他的信就算为义。6 正如大卫称那在行为以外蒙   神算为义的人是有福的。7 他说:“得赦免其过、遮盖其罪的,这人是有福的!
•  神不再记念你的罪。
•信徒不必倚靠他们的自我努力来接受  神的祝福,因为耶稣代表他们满足了律法的每一个要求。
•信徒可以享受  神的祝福和赏赐的恩惠,因为基督在十字架上为他们成了咒诅。
•看见耶稣的慈爱和祂完成的工会带来内在的改变,被  神的爱所激发而生出善行。
11 凡祭司天天站着事奉  神,屡次献上一样的祭物,这祭物永不能除罪。12 但基督献了一次永远的赎罪祭,就在  神的右边坐下了。
• 罪对信徒没有辖治权。当他们意识到在行为以外是基督里的义时,有耶稣的能力会使他们克服诱惑。
正如大卫称那在行为以外蒙   神算为义的人是有福的。
•信徒可以享受与  神有一个亲密的关系,如同他们的父亲,因为他们因信耶稣而称义。
7 为义人死,是少有的;为仁人死,或者有敢作的;8 惟有基督在我们还作罪人的时候为我们死,  神的爱就在此向我们显明了。 9 现在我们既靠着祂的血称义,就更要藉着祂免去  神的忿怒。
•因为耶稣完美的牺牲,信徒不仅能进入  神的至圣所,还能坦然无惧地来到施恩宝座前,为要得怜恤,蒙恩惠,作随时的帮助。
2、腓立比书2:13因为你们立志行事,都是  神在你们心里运行,为要成就祂的美意。
3、出埃及记20:5不可跪拜那些像;也不可事奉它,因为我耶和华你的  神,是忌邪的   神。恨我的,我必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三四代;
4、何西阿书 8:7他们所种的是风,所收的是暴风,所种的不成禾稼,就是发苗也不结实。即便结实,外邦人必吞吃。 
5、路加福音 8:11这比喻乃是这样。种子就是  神的道。 
6、希伯来书 7:27祂不像那些大祭司,每日必须先为自己的罪,后为百姓的罪献祭,因为祂只一次将自己献上,就把这事成全了。

















你看,一旦你把赦罪变成你的责任和你需要遵守的律法,你就注定要失败。没有一个人能完美地认清他犯的所有的罪。你会把自己逼疯的。如果你真的相信是为了赦罪而认罪,那你就不能自由地选择你想要认哪些罪而忽略其余的罪。律法是整体的,圣经里清楚地说到:“因为凡遵守全律法的,只在一条上跌倒,他就是犯了众条。”(雅各书2:10) 如果你真的需要认罪来获得赦免,那么你必须认清所有的罪。否则,你仍旧是“犯了众条”,因为“无怜悯的审判”。(雅各书2:13)






在哥林多人明确地犯罪之后,保罗本有最恰当的机会写信给他们,教导哥林多教会要认他们淫乱的罪。但保罗是如何做的?他说,“岂不知你们的身子就是圣灵的殿么?…..”(哥林多前书6:19)他没有说,“岂不知你们的身子就是圣灵的殿么?赶紧去认罪,修复你们和神的交通,衪可能会将衪的灵重新放回你们里面。” 书信里甚至都没有提到他们必须认罪。相反,保罗提醒他们他们在基督里的身份,甚至在他们失败时,他坚持说他们的身子仍然是(现在时)圣灵的殿。显然,保罗相信不断地提醒信徒他们在基督里的身份以及他们所拥有的是战胜他们的罪的关键。







8我们若说自己无罪、便是自欺、真理不在我们心里了。9我们若认自己的罪、神是信实的、是公义的、必要赦免我们的罪、洗净我们一切的不义。10我们若说自己没有犯过罪、便是以 神为说谎的.祂的道也不在我们心里了。


虽然这里约翰写信时用了“我们”,但是我们知道,这并不意味着他不相信罪的存在。这段经文很显然是写给不信的诺斯替派教徒,鼓励他们停止否认罪,承认罪存在的事实并且承认他们也曾犯罪。这样写,是让他们意识到“因为世人都犯了罪,亏缺了神的荣耀”。(罗马书3:23 )

实际上,约翰是在向诺斯替派教徒传福音,告诉他们如果他们认罪,神就是信实的,就会赦免他们的罪,洗净他们的不义。这就是为什么在约翰一书的开始,约翰说道,“我们将所看见,所听见的,传给你们,使你们与我们相交。我们乃是与父并祂儿子耶稣基督相交的”。(约翰一书1:3 ) 约翰是在向非信徒(在这里是指诺斯替派教徒)传讲耶稣和衪完成的工,并且邀请他们与其他早期教会的信徒在基督里团契。


























4、哥林多前书 6:19



















36夫子,律法上的诫命,那一条是最大的呢?37耶稣对他说,你要尽心,尽性,尽意,爱主你的神。 38这是诫命中的第一,且是最大的。